biopsy: A procedure in which a tiny piece of a body part (tissue
sample), such as the kidney or bladder, is removed (with a
needle or during surgery) for examination under a microscope
to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
bladder: A thick muscular balloon-shaped pouch in which
urine is stored before being discharged through the urethra.
cancer: An abnormal growth that can invade nearby structures
and spread to other parts of the body and may be a threat to life.
carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that
line or cover body organs.
carcinoma in situ (CIS): CIS is a stage of high-grade
bladder cancer that appears as a flat, reddish, velvety patch on
the bladder lining. CIS is highly malignant and aggressive.
cystectomy: The surgical removal of part or all of the urinary
cystoscope: A narrow, tube-like instrument fitted with lenses
and a light passed through the urethra to look inside the bladder.
The procedure is called cystoscopy (sis-TAW-skuh-pee).
cystoscopy: Also known as a cystourethroscopy. An
examination with a narrow, flexible tube-like instrument passed
through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract
for structural abnormalities or obstructions, such as tumors or
dysuria: A painful, burning or uncomfortable urination.
hematuria: Blood in the urine, which can be a sign of a kidney
stone or other urinary problem. Gross hematuria is blood that is
visible to the naked eye. Microscopic hematuria cannot be seen
but is detected by a urine test.
immunotherapy: Also called biologic therapy, it is designed
to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses
materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to bolster,
target or restore immune system function.
intravesical therapy: A treatment method in which drugs
are administered directly into the bladder (through a catheter)
rather than being given by mouth or injected into a vein. The
medications given allow the drugs to affect the cancerous cells
in the bladder and bladder lining with little to no effect to other
nearby organs and tissues.
invasive: Having or showing a tendency to spread from the
point of origin to adjacent tissue, as some cancers do. Involving
cutting or puncturing the skin or inserting instruments into the
kidney: One of two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes from
the blood and discharge these waste products in urine. The
kidneys are located near the middle of the back. The kidneys
send urine to the bladder through tubes called ureters.
lamina propria: A layer of loose connective tissue between
the mucosa and bladder muscle.
laser: Device that utilizes the ability of certain substances
to absorb electromagnetic energy and re-radiates as a highly
focused beam of synchronized single wave-length radiation.
metabolism: The chemical processes occurring within a
living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance
metastasized: Cancerous tumor that has spread to another
part of the body.
mucosa: The inside lining of organs.
pathologist: A scientist who is skilled in identifying the cause
and progress of diseases by examining tissue and fluid from
pelvic: Relating to, involving or located in or near the pelvis
perforation: A tiny hole that develops in the bladder after
treatment for bladder cancer resection.
tissue: Group of cells in an organism that are similar in form
transurethral resection: Surgical removal of tissue
performed with a special instrument inserted through the
tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue or growth of cells.
TURBT: Also referred to as a transurethral resection of the
bladder. Surgical procedure performed where a lighted tube
is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. It serves as
a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the treatment of bladder
ureter: One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to
urethra: In males, this narrow tube carries urine from the
bladder to the outside of the body and also serves as the channel
through which semen is ejaculated. Extends from the bladder to
the tip of the penis. In females, this short, narrow tube carries
urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
urethral: Relating to the urethra, the tube that carries urine
from the bladder to outside the body.
urothelial: Cells that comprise a layer of the bladder.
urinalysis: A test of a urine sample that can reveal many
problems of the urinary system and other body systems. The
sample may be observed for physical characteristics, chemistry,
the presence of drugs or germs or other signs of disease.
urinary tract: The system that takes wastes from the blood and
carries them out of the body in the form of urine. Passageway
from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder and urethra.
urinate: To release urine from the bladder to the outside. Also
referred to as “void.”
urine: Liquid waste product filtered from the blood by the
kidneys, stored in the bladder and expelled from the body
through the urethra by the act of urinating (voiding). About 96
percent of which are water and the rest waste products.
urologist: A surgeon who specializes in diseases of the male
and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system.